Mittlerer/Oberer Keuper (late Late Triassic)

During the late Late Triassic, Southern Germany consisted for the most part of an open, relatively arid landscape, with only few small forests. Some rivers and larger lakes were also present. In the various habitats of this landscape, a rich plant assemblage developed. The vegetation consisted primarily of gymnosperms such as cycads, bennettites and conifers, which were at their peak during the Mesozoic.

Fish fossils from this time period are rare. Besides lungfish, the ganoid fish Semionotus, which lived preferentially in rivers, is one of the few fishes found. Whenever rivers ran dry, the fishes concentrated in the remaining water holes.

In the latest Late Triassic (Rhaetian), the situation changed drastically. The sea advanced again into Southern Germany. Remains of sharks, teeth and scales of bony fishes, bones of marine reptiles, and coprolites (fossil faeces), together with sand and rubble, were concentrated by currents into dense accumulations (bone beds).

Pterosaur: Eudimorphodon

Labyrinthodont: Metoposaurus diagnosticus

Tortoise: Proganochelys quenstedti

Crocodile relative: Aetosaurus ferratus

Phytosaur: Nicrosaurus kapffi

Dinosaur: Plateosaurier engelhardti

Evolution of mammals: therapsids

Oldest mammals: Thomasia antiqua

Oldest mammals: One tooth is enough

The long way into the air