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The oldest parts of the collection date back to the end of the16th century. They were incorporated in the art collection of the duke of Wurttemberg out of which the Natural History Museum emerged. The main importance of the collection is based on the fossils from the Mesozoic, Tertiary and Quaternary of Southern Germany. Spectacular finds are the reptiles from the Mesozoic of Wurttemberg, the most ancient turtles worldwide, marine reptiles and invertebrates (e.g. sea lilies) from the Posidonia shale, fossils from the Upper Jurassic of Nusplingen, the miocene faunas and floras from the Ulm area (Steinheim a. A., Langenau, Ulm), the Quaternary large mammals from the Upper Rhine valley and the skull of the archaic human from Steinheim/Murr. The Jurassic collection of stratified invertebrates is extraordinarily large (comprising especially ammonites and corals), among those fossils with soft part preservation from the Posidonia shale. The amber collection with a focus on material from the Dominican Republic is one of the biggest collections of this type. Likewise the vertebrate collection from the Paleogene of the Fayum (Egypt) assembled at the beginning of the last century has a supraregional interest.

Palaeozoic and Triassic invertebrates

Jurassic and Cretaceous invertebrates

Tertiary and Quaternary invertebrates

Microfossils

Fossil plants

Amphibians, reptiles and birds (Palaeozoic and Mesozoic)

Fishes (from all periods); reptiles, amphibians and birds (Tertiary and Quaternary)

Tertiary mammals

Quaternary mammals

Amber

Sedimentary rocks

Magmatic rocks

Minerals

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